Wissenschaftliche Dokumentation zu afterbiotic

Dokumentation zu Saccharomyces boulardii bei Durchfall und Störungen der Darmflora

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Systematic review with meta-analysis: Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.
Szajewska H, Kołodziej M. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2015 Oct;42(7):793-801

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea is a common complication of antibiotic use, but it can be prevented with administration of probiotics.
AIM: To update our 2005 meta-analysis on the effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults.
METHODS: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases were searched up until May 2015, with no language restrictions, for randomised controlled trials; additional references were obtained from reviewed articles. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines.
RESULTS: Twenty-one randomised controlled trials (4780 participants), among which 16 were new trials, met the inclusion criteria for this updated systematic review. Administration of S. boulardii compared with placebo or no treatment reduced the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (as defined by the study investigators) in patients treated with antibiotics from 18.7% to 8.5% (risk ratio, RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.57, number needed to treat, NNT: 10; 95% CI: 9-13). In children, S. boulardii reduced the risk from 20.9% to 8.8% (6 randomised controlled trials, n=1653, RR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.3-0.6); in adults, from 17.4% to 8.2% (15 randomised controlled trials, n=3114, RR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.38-0.63). Moreover, S. boulardii reduced the risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea; however, this reduction was significant only in children (2 randomised controlled trials, n = 579, RR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.08-0.73) and not in adults (9 randomised controlled trials, n = 1441, RR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.47-1.34).
CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis confirms that S. boulardii is effective in reducing the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults.

Efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii for acute diarrhea.
Feizizadeh S, Salehi-Abargouei A, Akbari V. Pediatrics. 2014 Jul;134(1):e176-91.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii for treatment of childhood diarrhea remains unclear. Our objective was to systematically review data on the effect of S. boulardii on acute childhood diarrhea.
METHODS:Our data sources included Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, and The Cochrane Library up to September 2013 without language restrictions. Randomized controlled trials and non-randomized trials that evaluated effectiveness of S. boulardii for treatment of acute diarrhea in children were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for eligibility and quality and extracted the data.
RESULTS:In total, 1248 articles were identified, of which 22 met the inclusion criteria. Pooling data from trials showed that S. boulardii significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea (mean difference [MD], -19.7 hours; 95% confidence interval [CI], -26.05 to -13.34), stool frequency on day 2 (MD, -0.74; 95% CI, -1.38 to -0.10) and day 3 (MD, -1.24; 95% CI, -2.13 to -0.35), the risk for diarrhea on day 3 (risk ratio [RR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.60) and day 4 (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.59) after intervention compared with control. The studies included in this review were varied in the definition of diarrhea, the termination of diarrhea, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and their methodological quality.
CONCLUSIONS:This review and meta-analysis show that S. boulardii is safe and has clear beneficial effects in children who have acute diarrhea. However, additional studies using head-to-head comparisons are needed to define the best dosage of S. boulardii for diarrhea with different causes.

Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients.
McFarland LV. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 May 14;16(18):2202-22.

This article reviews the evidence for efficacy and safety of Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii) for various disease indications in adults based on the peer-reviewed, randomized clinical trials and pre-clinical studies from the published medical literature (Medline, Clinical Trial websites and meeting abstracts) between 1976 and 2009. For meta-analysis, only randomized, blinded controlled trials unrestricted by language were included. Pre-clinical studies, volunteer studies and uncontrolled studies were excluded from the review of efficacy and meta-analysis, but included in the systematic review. Of 31 randomized, placebo-controlled treatment arms in 27 trials (encompassing 5029 study patients), S. boulardii was found to be significantly efficacious and safe in 84% of those treatment arms. A meta-analysis found a significant therapeutic efficacy for S. boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) (RR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.35-0.63, P < 0.001). In adults, S. boulardii can be strongly recommended for the prevention of AAD and the traveler’s diarrhea. Randomized trials also support the use of this yeast probiotic for prevention of enteral nutrition-related diarrhea and reduction of Helicobacter pylori treatment-related symptoms. S. boulardii shows promise for the prevention of C. difficile disease recurrences; treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, acute adult diarrhea, Crohn’s disease, giardiasis, human immunodeficiency virus-related diarrhea; but more supporting evidence is recommended for these indications. The use of S. boulardii as a therapeutic probiotic is evidence-based for both efficacy and safety for several types of diarrhea.

Saccharomyces boulardii effects on gastrointestinal disease.
Zanello G, Meurens F, Berri M, Salmon H. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2009;11(1):47-58. Epub 2008 Jun 25.

Health benefits attributed to probiotics have been described for decades. They include the treatment and the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases, vaginal and urinary infections and allergies. Saccharomyces boulardii, a species of yeast widely distributed, has been described as a biotherapeutic agent since several clinical trials displayed its beneficial effects in the prevention and the treatment of intestinal infections and in the maintenance of inflammatory bowel disease. All these diseases are characterized by acute diarrhoea. Administration of the yeast in combination or not with an antibiotherapy has shown to decrease significantly the duration and the frequency of diarrhoea. Experimental studies elucidated partially the molecular mechanisms triggered to improve the host health. The discovery of its anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory activities in correlation with the advances in the understanding of mucosal immunology opens a new field of perspectives in S. boulardii therapeutic applications.

Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with acute diarrhoea.
Kurugol Z, Koturoglu G. Acta Paediatr. 2005 Jan;94(1):44-7.

Certain probiotic agents, e.g. Lactobacillus GG, have shown efficacy in clinical trials for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhoea, but few studies have examined the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii. We evaluated the effect of S. boulardii in children with acute diarrhoea. METHODS: Two hundred children were randomized to receive S. boulardii in a granulated form in a daily dose of 250 mg (S. boulardii group) or placebo (placebo group) for 5 d. Clinical and demographic characteristics on admission were similar between the study groups. RESULTS: The medians of the average stool frequency after the second day of the treatment were significantly lower in the S. boulardii group than in the placebo group (p = 0.003). The duration of diarrhoea significantly reduced in the S. boulardii group compared with the placebo group (4.7 vs 5.5 d, p = 0.03). The effect of S. boulardii on watery diarrhoea became apparent after the second day of the treatment. The duration of hospital stay was shorter in the S. boulardii group than in the placebo group (2.9 vs 3.9 d, p < 0.001). Four children from the placebo group versus only one child from the S. boulardii group had persisting diarrhoea. CONCLUSION: The placebo-controlled study suggested that S. boulardii significantly reduced the duration of acute diarrhoea and the duration of hospital stay. S. boulardii seems to be a promising agent for the amelioration of the course of acute diarrhoea in children when used therapeutically.

Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Kotowska M, Albrecht P, Szajewska H. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Mar 1;21(5):583-90.

BACKGROUND: Co-treatment with Saccharomyces boulardii appears to lower the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in adults receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. AIM: To determine whether S. boulardii prevents antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children. METHODS: A total of 269 children (aged 6 months to 14 years) with otitis media and/or respiratory tract infections were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial in which they received standard antibiotic treatment plus 250 mg of S. boulardii (experimental group, n = 132) or a placebo (control group, n = 137) orally twice daily for the duration of antibiotic treatment. Analyses were based on allocated treatment and included data from 246 children. RESULTS: Patients receiving S. boulardii had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea (> or =3 loose or watery stools/day for > or =48 h occurring during or up to 2 weeks after the antibiotic therapy) than those receiving placebo [nine of 119 (8%) vs. 29 of 127 (23%), relative risk: 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.2-0.7]. S. boulardii also reduced the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (diarrhoea caused by Clostridium difficile or otherwise unexplained diarrhoea) compared with placebo [four of 119 (3.4%) vs. 22 of 127 (17.3%), relative risk: 0.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.5]. No adverse events were observed. CONCLUSION: This is the first randomized-controlled trial evidence that S. boulardii effectively reduces the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children.

Meta-analysis: non-pathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.
Szajewska H, Mrukowicz J. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Sep 1;22(5):365-72.

Background : Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea occurs in up to 30% of patients who receive antibiotics but can be prevented with probiotics. Aim : To systematically evaluate the effectiveness of Saccharomyces boulardii in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults. Methods : Using medical subject headings and free-language terms, the following electronic databases were searched for studies relevant to antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and S. boulardii: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library. Additional sources were obtained from references in reviewed articles. Only randomized-controlled trials were considered for study inclusion. Results : Of 16 potentially relevant clinical trials identified, five randomized-controlled trials (1076 participants) met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. Treatment with S. boulardii compared with placebo reduced the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea from 17.2% to 6.7% (RR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23-0.78; random effect model). The number needed to treat to prevent one case of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea was 10 (95% CI: 7-16). No side-effects were reported. Conclusions : A meta-analysis of data from five randomized-controlled trials showed that S. boulardii is moderately effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults treated with antibiotics for any reason (mainly respiratory tract infections). For every 10 patients receiving daily S. boulardii with antibiotics, one fewer will develop antibiotic-associated diarrhoea.

The probiotic effect of Saccharomyces boulardii in a pediatric age group.
Erdeve O, Tiras U, Dallar Y. J Trop Pediatr. 2004 Aug;50(4):234-6.

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of S. boulardii in diarrhea associated with commonly used antibiotics such as sulbactam-ampicillin (SAM) and azithromycin (AZT). Four hundred and sixty-six patients were assigned to four different groups as follows: group 1:117 patients receiving SAM alone; group 2:117 patients receiving SAM and S. boulardii, group 3:105 patients receiving AZT alone; group 4:127 patients receiving AZT and S. boulardii. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea was seen in 42 of the 222 patients (18.9 per cent) receiving an antibiotic without the probiotic, and in 14 of the 244 patients (5.7 per cent) who received both the probiotic and the antibiotic (p < 0.05). In the group receiving SAM where S. boulardii use was found to be significant, the use of S. boulardii decreased the diarrhea rate from 32.3 to 11.4 per cent in the 1-5 years age group (p < 0.05). This is a pioneering study investigating combined antibiotic and probiotic use in pediatric diarrhea patients.

Prevention of beta-lactam-associated diarrhea by Saccharomyces boulardii compared with placebo.
McFarland LV, Surawicz CM, Greenberg RN, Elmer GW, Moyer KA, Melcher SA, Bowen KE, Cox JL. Am J Gastroenterol. 1995 Mar;90(3):439-48.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety and efficacy of a new preventive agent for antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in patients receiving at least one beta-lactam antibiotic. METHODS: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was performed in a high-risk group of hospitalized patients receiving a new prescription for a beta-lactam antibiotic and having no acute diarrhea on enrollment. Lyophilized Saccharomyces boulardii or placebo (1 g/day) was given within 72 h of the start of the antibiotic(s) and continued until 3 days after the antibiotic was discontinued, after which the patients were followed for 7 wk. RESULTS: Of the 193 eligible patients, significantly fewer, 7/97 (7.2%), patients receiving S. boulardii developed AAD compared with 14/96 (14.6%) on placebo (p = 0.02). The efficacy of S. boulardii for the prevention of AAD was 51%. Using a multivariate model to adjust for two independent risk factors for AAD (age and days of cephalosporin use), the adjusted relative risk was significantly protective for S. boulardii (RR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.98). CONCLUSION: The prophylactic use of S. boulardii given with a beta-lactam antibiotic resulted in a significant reduction of AAD with no serious adverse reactions.